Essay on effects of global warming on antarctica

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How Global Warming Affects Antarctica’s Marine Life

Agnew , D. Tingley , G. Influence of Drake Passage oceanography on the parasitic infection of individual year-classes of southern blue whiting Micromesistius australis. Marine Ecology Progress Series , , — Aoki , S. Church , J.

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Geophysical Research Letters , 32 , Aronson , R. Seibel , B. Climate change and invasibility of the Antarctic benthos. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics , 38 , — Atkinson , A. Rothery , P.

Long-term decline in krill stock and increase in salps within the Southern Ocean. Nature , , — Fleming , A. Oceanic circumpolar habitats of Antarctic krill. Marine Ecology Progress Series , , 1 — Baker , A. Edge , K. Multiple gene evidence for expansion of extant penguins out of Antarctica due to global cooling.

Barbraud , C. Weimerskirch , H. Antarctic avian phenology and climate change. Journal of Ornithology , , 52 — Antarctic birds breed later in response to climate change.

An Antarctic mining boom?

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , , — Barnes , D. Clarke , A. Incursion and excursion of Antarctic biota: past, present and future. Global Ecology and Biogeography , 15 , — Beaugrand , G. Reid , P. Plankton effect on cod recruitment in the North Sea. Belchier , M. Collins , M. Recruitment and body size in relation to temperature in juvenile Patagonian toothfish Dissostichus eleginoides at South Georgia.

Marine Biology , , — Brander , K.


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Cod recruitment is strongly affected by climate when stock biomass is low. Bonner , W. Poole : Blandford Press , pp. Conservation in the Antarctic. In Laws , R. Antarctic ecology , vol.

London : Academic Press , — Castini , M. Kornilovs , G. Multi-level trophic cascades in a heavily exploited open marine ecosystem. Chambers , L.

Antarctica: Aerial Photos Reveal Impact of Climate Change

Weston , M. Chan , J. Liu , K. Typhoon intensity in a warming world. Bulletin American Meteorological Society , 85 , — Cheung , W. Pauly , D. Projecting global marine biodiversity impacts under climate change scenarios. Fish and Fisheries , 10 , — Chown , S. Convey , P. Harris , C. Polar marine ecosystems: major threats and future change. Environmental Conservation , 30 , 1 — Reid , K. Constable , A. Doust , S. Southern Ocean sentinel — an international program to assess climate change impacts on marine ecosystems.


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Antarctic climate change and its influences on terrestrial ecosystems. In Bergstrom, D. Trends in Antarctic terrestrial and limnetic ecosystems: Antarctica as a global indicator.

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Dordrecht : Springer , — Influences on and origins of terrestrial biodiversity of the sub-Antarctic islands. Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania , , 83 — Cook , A. Christie , D. Glacier retreat on South Georgia and implications for the spread of rats.

Antarctic Science , 22 , Croxall , J. Murphy , E. Environmental change and Antarctic seabird populations. Science , , — Forcada , J. Life history buffering in Antarctic mammals and birds against changing patterns of climate and environmental variation. Global Change Biology , 14 , — The effects of global climate variability in pup production of Antarctic fur seals.

Ecology , 86 , — Contrasting population changes in sympatric penguin species in association with climate warming. Global Change Biology , 12 , — Francis , R. Measuring the strength of environment—recruitment relationships: the importance of including predictor screening within cross-validations. Fraser , W. Hofmann , E. Trivelpiece , S. Increases in Antarctic penguin populations - reduced competition with whales or a loss of sea ice due to environmental warming.

Polar Biology , 11 , — Frenot , Y. Bergstrom , D. Biological invasions in the Antarctic: extent, impacts and implications. Biological Reviews , 80 , 45 — Gille , S. Warming of the Southern Ocean since the s. Decadal-scale temperature trends in the Southern Hemisphere Ocean.